25 percent of pastors respond that they are very familiar with the idea of "an individual deconstructing their faith in which they systematically dissect and frequently reject Christian beliefs they grew up with," 21 percent respond that they are familiar with it, and 27 percent respond that they are only somewhat familiar with it. Twelve percent (12%), fourteen percent (14%), and one percent (1%), respectively, claim to be unfamiliar with the idea. According to Scott McConnell, executive director of Lifeway Research, "many Americans have ceased identifying themselves with Christian churches in recent years." "While studies have indicated that many people who don't go to church or claim to belong to one nevertheless uphold many Christian values, for a notable percentage, the path away from the Christian church starts with a shift in beliefs," says the study. The pastor's age and educational background are important determinants of their conceptual competence. Pastors aged 65 and older are the least likely to claim to have the same degree of knowledge with deconstruction as pastors in the younger age bracket of 18 to 44 (36%). (12 percent ). Pastors with PhD degrees had the highest likelihood of being extremely acquainted (43%) compared to those without college degrees, who have the lowest likelihood (8 percent ). The majority of pastors without a college degree likewise claim to have never heard of the word (27 percent ). Additionally, white pastors (13%) are more likely than African American pastors (24%) to claim that they had never heard of deconstruction. Female pastors are twice as likely as male pastors to claim full ignorance of the idea (22 percent vs. 11 percent). Pastors in the West (20%) are more likely than those in the Midwest (11%) to claim they have no idea what deconstruction is.